The Peer Review System
Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author’s scholarly work, research ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (and often narrowly defined) field who are qualified and able to perform impartial JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research review. Peer review refers to the work done while screening submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This normative procedure encourages authors to adhere to their discipline's established standards and discourages the spread of unfounded claims, undesirable interpretations, and personal viewpoints. Peer review increases the probability that weaknesses will be identified and fixed with advice and encouragement. For both grant funding and publication in a scholarly journal, it is normally required that the subject be both novel and substantial.