Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics <p><em><strong>Discipline:</strong></em>&nbsp;farm management and production economics, agricultural marketing, agricultural policy and development, food and nutrition economics, and environmental and natural resource economics.</p> en-US (Irish Jane P. Balios) (Darryl M Nuyda) Wed, 10 Apr 2019 19:48:01 +0000 OJS 60 Serologic Status of Newcastle Disease in Native Chickens by Hemagglutination Inhibition Test <p style="text-align: justify;">Newcastle disease (NCD) is a poultry disease caused by avian Paramyxovirus type 1, characterized by gastrointestinal, respiratory and neurological symptoms. The study established the prevalence of NCD in native chickens and evaluated the protection levels of vaccinated chickens. Blood serum samples were subjected to hemagglutination inhibition test. A total of 75 blood samples were collected from five sites in Davao City: 60 samples from four unvaccinated native chicken farms, and 15 from a vaccinated broiler farm. Results showed seven (7) unvaccinated native chickens with positive titer levels ranging from 2 to 32, of which two(2) were considered significant, indicating protection even without an elicited immune response. This cannot be simply attributed to environmental factors considering uniform exposure of other individuals to similar conditions but exhibited no positive titers. The significant titer count of vaccinated samples ranging from 16 to 128 is attributed to their vaccination history. Differences in titer levels despite similar vaccine administration indicate a disparity in levels of protection due to different individual antibody immune responses, and efficacy of vaccines. Analysis by Chi-square goodness of fit test showed no difference in the titer levels of native chickens, which was expected as they did not have previous exposure to NCD and most had no titers. The two significant titer levels were considered outliers and provided a possible genetic perspective with pre-immune antibodies and natural resistance of native chickens as the focus. Gene analysis and isolation, as well as the prevalence of NCD in other localities, are recommended for future studies.</p> Arlyn Jave B. Adlawon, Sean Michael A. Lopez, Katrina Mae T. Vilela Copyright (c) 2019 Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics Wed, 10 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Value Chain and Policy Studies in Support of Native Pig Production in Eastern Visayas, Philippines <p>There are ongoing efforts to improve the native pig industry in Asia and the Philippines. This study investigated the flow of native pigs from the raisers to the final consumers and examined public legislation that impacts on the functioning of the chain. This descriptive study utilized a cross-sectional design of data collection obtained from a total of 80 respondents from Eastern Samar and Leyte using a survey questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percent, mean, and range. Results showed that a farmer earns a margin of Php 500 (9.59 USD) per head for 6-7 months raising at a selling price of Php 100 (1.92 USD) per kg live. Slaughtering pigs and selling the meat by kilos give a margin of Php 1,400 (26.86 USD) per head. Processors earn a margin of Php 1,700 (32.61 USD) per head from selling <em>lechon</em>. Traders buy native pigs from raisers at Php 100/kilogram, live weight and earn a profit of Php 94.32 (1.81 USD) per kilogram. There are no known policies of LGUs which are focused solely on native pigs raising and their products. The lack of awareness of LGUs on native pigs’ potential seems to be the reason why there are no ordinances that are supportive solely of native pig production and marketing.</p> Kimberly Michelle R. Quintua, Eva P. Palada, Evelyn A. Corado, Yasmin C. Casillano Copyright (c) 2019 Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics Wed, 10 Apr 2019 21:08:14 +0000 Fabrication of Improvised Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells from Mangosteen Pericarp Extract <p>Recent researches are geared towards finding alternative sources of renewable energy and solar power seems to be an attractive avenue and currently, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have gained worldwide attention. This study aimed to fabricate DSSC that makes use of an improvised conductive glass, with zinc oxide in nappy cream as photoanode and mangosteen pericarp extract as a sensitizer. It sought to find the effect of DSSC processing on the conductivity and performance in terms of current, voltage, and power density generated, and evaluate its stability. Ordinary 1/8” mirror was made conductive glass by stripping the gray coat with very fine sandpaper then heating to remove the orange coat. Conductivity was good (2.1 ohms) and etching with povidone-iodine provided transparency for the photoanode. The DSSCs were capable of producing a mean current of 0.0007 mA and mean voltage of 2.8670 mV that last for ninety minutes. The present study showed DSSCs could be constructed using indigenous materials. Further research is needed for finding ways to improve its efficiency and lifespan. By knowing the principles of the DSSCs, and enhancing the innovativeness and creativity of the current DSSC, researchers can overcome the lack of expensive materials and equipment for future studies.</p> Leonel Mendoza, Jermaine Ritzchelle Marquez, Nora C. Cabaral Copyright (c) 2019 Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics Wed, 10 Apr 2019 21:08:18 +0000 Sweet Brine: Innovative Procedure to Convert Hard-Rinded Fruit Wastes to Bonbon Desserts <p>In 2015, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in its October Waste Manual revealed that over 40% of the wastes in local communities are biodegradable leftovers from vegetables and fruits. The study aimed to produce a viable concoction upon which vegetable peelings and other biodegradable leftovers could be recycled and be made edible. Using the trial and error method system, the study employed three mixture solutions: vinegar and salt, wine and beer, and water and baking soda which were tested with rinds of papaya, watermelon, and lemon. The research yielded two-pronged outputs: 1) a scientifically sound solution to recycle hard-rinded fruit wastes, and 2) an innovative procedure on how to use the solution in converting fruit rinds to sweet bonbon desserts. The procedure involved peeling the rinds until the hardcore remains, immersing the core to the solution for 10 days and then drying the rinds, cooking them under low heat with caramelized sugar and serving as tarts or bonbon. The study was carried out following the main postulates of science when it comes to boiling, drying, dehydrating, preserving, powdering and processing of fruit rinds into candied versions. Chemicals used for the study were as follows: water and baking soda with the ratio of 4:2; wine and beer in equal part and vinegar and salt solution in equal parts in 50ml of water. &nbsp;Upon evaluation, it was found out that the drying time significantly affected the moisture content of the dehydrated watermelon rind candies. These results showed that longer drying time would result in a significant decrease in the moisture content of the dehydrated candies. Furthermore, the study has proven that the drying time, amount of moisture allowed to remain in the rinds, as well as how fine the rinds would be powdered all affect the overall condition of the candied rinds and how strong the finished products are when it comes to resisting spoilage and the formation of molds without compromising the taste and overall consumption condition of the rinds.</p> Maria Gloria Ramos-Datinguinoo, Prof. Dolores Jacobe- Baes Copyright (c) 2019 Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics Wed, 10 Apr 2019 21:08:22 +0000 Population Growth rate of African Night (Eudrilus eugeniae) Crawler Fed with Different Leguminous Leaves as Supplement <p>Earthworms are not just converting garbage into valuable manure but also keep our environment healthy. The study was conducted to determine the growth rate of African Night Crawler (ANC) fed with different leguminous leaves as a supplement. A total of 15 worm bins were used for the 5 treatments replicated 3 times adopting the Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The worms were fed with different leguminous leaves as a supplement in a 25% volume to other substrates. The treatments of the study were the following: Treatment 0 (control), fed with rice straw and manure, Treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 fed with ipil-ipil, kudzu, madre de cacao, and peanut, respectively, with the ration of 1 part cattle manure, 2 parts rice straw and 1 part legume or 1:2:1. The result showed significant differences in the final weight and in the final population of the worms. Earthworms fed with madre de cacao as supplement obtain the heaviest weight and highest population. It is noteworthy that peanut and Ipil-Ipil had more than doubled the population growth rate of African Night Crawler (ANC) while Madre de cacao had tripled the increase. The study showed that vermiculture utilizing a 1:2:1 ratio by weight of cattle manure, Rice straw added with different legumes had affected the population growth rate of African Night Crawler.</p> Noel J. Baylon, Isaias B. Catian Copyright (c) 2019 Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics Wed, 10 Apr 2019 21:08:28 +0000 Seedling Vigor Testing as Affected by Two Methods of Seed Extraction of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) <p>This study was conducted to test and compare the seedling vigor performance of dwarf green and dwarf white varieties of tomato as affected by two methods of seed extraction such as fermentation and hydrochloric acid in terms of germination percentage, germination rate, days to seedlings emergence, days to 50% development of true leaves, root length, stem length and shoot length. It was carried using Complete Randomized Design (CRD) in a 2x2 factorial experiment with four treatment combinations with three replications. Dwarf Green variety was affected by seed method extraction with HCl treatment had ideal conditions for seed and seedling quality performance and vigor of tomato such as germination percentage and rate, number of days to seedling emergence, number of days to fifty percent development of true leaves, root, stem and shoot length. Dwarf White performed inferior than Dwarf Green in terms of the parameters investigated.</p> Mobarak D. Hadji Amin Copyright (c) 2019 Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics Wed, 10 Apr 2019 21:08:45 +0000 Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Visceral Organ Evaluation of Swine Raised In Confinement and Free-Ranged Systems <p>The study was conducted within ninety days duration from May 7-August 7, 2013. It aimed to determine whether the rearing system (either confinement or free – ranged) can affect the growth performance, meat quality and visceral organ characteristics of swine. Twelve (12) heads of swine used in the study which was randomly distributed into two treatments assigned in confinement and free-range systems, respectively adopting the T-test as the statistical tool. The initial weights of swine were homogenous at the start of the study. However, after obtaining the gain in weights, results revealed that swine raised in the free-range system had a higher average weight and heavier stomach compared to the confinement system. It further revealed that the back fat of the free ranged swine is thinner compared to the swine in confinement system with 1.3 cm and 2 cm, respectively. The total feed consumed by the twelve heads of experimental animals were 2,714 kilograms for 90 days period with 13.73 % return on capital for free – ranged while 5.5 % for confinement. The overall return on capital of the entire experiment was 9.6 %. Therefore, the free-range system had significantly affected the growth performance of swine.</p> Mario N. Baquiller, Keith Reamor R. Amorado, Jhon Marc C. Mapula Copyright (c) 2019 Philippine Journal of Agricultural Economics Wed, 10 Apr 2019 21:08:32 +0000